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Yet another betrayal of the user by the installer...

Windows startup repair can't repair this. But there is another way. First you need Windows install media, either optical or USB, and boot from it. At the Windows Setup screen choose language, and then at the next screen that says Install now, on the lower left is an option Repair your computer, pick that. Pick the Troubleshoot > Advanced options > Command prompt options.

And then you can pop over to this blog and pick up where it has all the CLI stuff, starting with 'diskpart'

I just intentionally broke Windows 10 in a VM by formatting the ESP, and I ran through all of these commands and now Windows 10 should boot.

You'll need to figure out how to get to the firmware boot manager (computer model specific F key, for me it's F9 on an HP and F12 on Intel NUC... I think) and you might have to dig around in there to find the Fedora bootloader. Every firmware boot manager UI is different so you just have to go exploring and hopefully get it booted. If not, you'll have to boot from Fedora install media.

Once you've booted Fedora you need to find the efibootmgr command used to write the bootloader location in NVRAM so Fedora will boot by default. You could actually do this first, before starting the Windows 10 bootloader restore project.

grep efibootmgr /var/log/anaconda/program.log

That path is for the root volume, so if you've used a live cd you'll have to mount root fs to get to that path. That'll show the efibootmgr command that you need to issue. One change is you need to use two forward slashes instead of one to specify the path to shim.efi.