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I know /dev/sda1 was 512MB, so I think my actual data is safe and fine, on /dev/sda2.

If /dev/sda1 was 512MB, then I guess it was the /boot partition, right ? If yes, then you can restore it by booting from a live DVD/USB of fedora, mounting the /dev/sda1 , chrooting and re-install a kernel image and grub2 there.

The /boot partition includes the vmlinuz and some grub2 stuff there in order to boot the system correctly. If you deleted this partition you have to reinstall the kernel and the grub2. Also, be sure that the entry in /etc/fstab is correct, because with the format of the /dev/sda1 the UUID maybe have been changed. Use the blkid command to list the correct UUID of the new /dev/sda1 partition.

Another idea could be to install the Fedora from scratch to another mimimal disk (if you have the space) and then take the newly created /boot/ partition and move / copy the contents to the /dev/sda1. Just an idea :)

Last but not least, you can use a recovery software like TestDisk. TestDisk can be installed in any Linux distribution, even in a Live image (e.g. Fedora) and you can use it from there. All the info is included at the documentation, have a read and you will find a step by step guide.