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Hmm, symlinking multi-user.target worked for me, and I wonder why you were successful with runlevel3.target but not multi-user.target as the former is simply a symlink to the latter. This is how I set up a local VM (didn't want to reboot my laptop ;-)), which booted and didn't start X/gdm just fine:

nils@f16:~> ls -l /lib/systemd/system/{runlevel3,multi-user}.target /etc/systemd/system/default.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  37 Nov 15 13:40 /etc/systemd/system/default.target -> /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 509 Oct 19 12:42 /lib/systemd/system/multi-user.target
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root  17 Oct 25 17:22 /lib/systemd/system/runlevel3.target -> multi-user.target

Not sure right now how to make this the permanent default for your user (i.e. so you only had to type "startx"), but this worked for me to start KDE out of multi-user.target:

nils@f16:~> startx /usr/bin/startkde