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Welcome to ask.fedora. Before answering your question, I need to ask one: why are you using a version of Fedora that reached End Of Life several years ago? (Once a version of Fedora reaches EOL, it receives no more updates, even for security, which means that your computer is badly out of date, and probably vulnerable to a large number of security holes that have been found and patched in the last several years.) You should be running either Fedora 21 or 22, the only two versions currently supported.

That being said, you probably added yourself to the Administrator group when you installed, so that you can simply use sudo to run one command as root, in this case, sudo yum install gcc will do what you need. (You will be prompted for your password.) If not, you should know the root password and can use su -c 'yum install gcc' followed by the root password when prompted to do the same thing. You don't want to be running a GUI as root, especially if you're new to Linux, because it's way, way too easy to mangle your system so badly that it doesn't run any longer. As far as becoming root in a terminal, that's safer, as long as you're careful, but that's a subject for later, once you're more familiar with how Linux works.